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This guarantee is the same guarantee that the kernel provides for system calls with regard to user space applications.


Moreover, BPF programs are portable across different architectures. BPF programs work in concert with the kernel, they make use of existing kernel infrastructure e. Unlike kernel modules, BPF programs are verified through an in-kernel verifier in order to ensure that they cannot crash the kernel, always terminate, etc.

XDP programs, for example, reuse the existing in-kernel drivers and operate on the provided DMA buffers containing the packet frames without exposing them or an entire driver to user space as in other models.

Moreover, XDP programs reuse the existing stack instead of bypassing it. The execution of a BPF program inside the kernel is always event driven! For example, a networking device which has a BPF program attached on its ingress path will trigger the execution of the program once a packet is received, a kernel address which has a kprobes with a BPF program attached will trap once the code at that address gets executed, then invoke the kprobes callback function for instrumentation which subsequently triggers the execution of the BPF program attached to it.

BPF consists of eleven 64 bit registers with 32 bit subregisters, a program counter and a byte large BPF stack space. Registers are named r0 - r The operating mode is 64 bit by default, the 32 bit subregisters can only be accessed through special ALU arithmetic logic unit operations. The 32 bit lower subregisters zero-extend into 64 bit when they are being written to. Register r10 is the only register which is read-only and contains the frame pointer address in order to access the BPF stack space.

A BPF program can call into a predefined helper function, which is defined by the core kernel never by modules. The BPF calling convention is defined as follows: r0 contains the return value of a helper function call. This calling convention was modeled to cover common call situations without having a performance penalty. Calls with 6 or more arguments are currently not supported.

Register r0 is also the register containing the exit value for the BPF program.

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The semantics of the exit value are defined by the type of program. Furthermore, when handing execution back to the kernel, the exit value is passed as a 32 bit value. Registers r1 - r5 are scratch registers, meaning the BPF program needs to either spill them to the BPF stack or move them to callee saved registers if these arguments are to be reused across multiple helper function calls.

Spilling means that the variable in the register is moved to the BPF stack. The reverse operation of moving the variable from the BPF stack to the register is called filling.

System Administrator's Guide

Upon entering execution of a BPF program, register r1 initially contains the context for the program. BPF is restricted to work on a single context. The context is defined by the program type, for example, a networking program can have a kernel representation of the network packet skb as the input argument. The general operation of BPF is 64 bit to follow the natural model of 64 bit architectures in order to perform pointer arithmetics, pass pointers but also pass 64 bit values into helper functions, and to allow for 64 bit atomic operations.

The maximum instruction limit per program is restricted to BPF instructions, which, by design, means that any program will terminate quickly. Although the instruction set contains forward as well as backward jumps, the in-kernel BPF verifier will forbid loops so that termination is always guaranteed. This means that from an instruction set point of view, loops can be implemented, but the verifier will restrict that. However, there is also a concept of tail calls that allows for one BPF program to jump into another one.

This, too, comes with an upper nesting limit of 32 calls, and is usually used to decouple parts of the program logic, for example, into stages. The instruction format is modeled as two operand instructions, which helps mapping BPF instructions to native instructions during JIT phase. The instruction set is of fixed size, meaning every instruction has 64 bit encoding. Currently, 87 instructions have been implemented and the encoding also allows to extend the set with further instructions when needed.

Most of the encoding for op has been reused from cBPF. The operation can be based on register or immediate operands. In the latter case, the destination operand is always a register. The available op instructions can be categorized into various instruction classes.

These classes are also encoded inside the op field. For native BPF these packet load instructions are less relevant nowadays. Memory in this context is generic and could be stack memory, map value data, packet data, etc.

Both ALU classes have basic operations with source operand which is register-based and an immediate-based counterpart. Jumps can be unconditional and conditional. Since off is signed, the jump can also be performed backwards as long as it does not create a loop and is within program bounds. Conditional jumps operate on both, register-based and immediate-based source operands.

This fall-through jump logic differs compared to cBPF and allows for better branch prediction as it fits the CPU branch predictor logic more naturally. Apart from that, there are three special jump operations within this class: the exit instruction which will leave the BPF program and return the current value in r0 as a return code, the call instruction, which will issue a function call into one of the available BPF helper functions, and a hidden tail call instruction, which will jump into a different BPF program.

All BPF handling such as loading of programs into the kernel or creation of BPF maps is managed through a central bpf system call.

System Design Guide

Available helper functions may differ for each BPF program type, for example, BPF programs attached to sockets are only allowed to call into a subset of helpers compared to BPF programs attached to the tc layer. Encapsulation and decapsulation helpers for lightweight tunneling constitute an example of functions which are only available to lower tc layers, whereas event output helpers for pushing notifications to user space are available to tc and XDP programs.

Each helper function is implemented with a commonly shared function signature similar to system calls.

The signature is defined as: u64 fn u64 r1, u64 r2, u64 r3, u64 r4, u64 r5 The calling convention as described in the previous section applies to all BPF helper functions. This allows for easily extending the core kernel with new helper functionality. All BPF helper functions are part of the core kernel and cannot be extended or added through kernel modules. The aforementioned function signature also allows the verifier to perform type checks.

In the latter case, the verifier can also perform additional checks, for example, whether the buffer was previously initialized. The list of available BPF helper functions is rather long and constantly growing, for example, at the time of this writing, tc BPF programs can choose from 38 different BPF helpers.

They can also be accessed through file descriptors from user space and can be arbitrarily shared with other BPF programs or user space applications. BPF programs which share maps with each other are not required to be of the same program type, for example, tracing programs can share maps with networking programs. A single BPF program can currently access up to 64 different maps directly. Map implementations are provided by the core kernel.

They all use the same common set of BPF helper functions in order to perform lookup, update or delete operations while implementing a different backend with differing semantics and performance characteristics. These types of maps tackle a specific issue which was unsuitable to be implemented solely through a BPF helper function since additional non-data state is required to be held across BPF program invocations.

Thus, it brings a number of complications for certain use cases such as iproute2, where tc or XDP sets up and loads the program into the kernel and terminates itself eventually. With that, also access to maps is unavailable from user space side, where it could otherwise be useful, for example, when maps are shared between ingress and egress locations of the data path. Also, third party applications may wish to monitor or update map contents during BPF program runtime.

To overcome this limitation, a minimal kernel space BPF file system has been implemented, where BPF map and programs can be pinned to, a process called object pinning.

For instance, tools such as tc make use of this infrastructure for sharing maps on ingress and egress. The BPF related file system is not a singleton, it does support multiple mount instances, hard and soft links, etc. Tail calls can be seen as a mechanism that allows one BPF program to call another, without returning back to the old program. Untangle Network Security pdf. To download NG Firewall,. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security.

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Backing up Untangle Server's Configuration. Firewall FAQs Why. Select the files you require, customise the. Untangle Network Security. They come pdf pre-loaded with either Free ,. The Untangle Server. Mar 31, Basic Understanding of the Untangle Firewall.

Untangle NG Firewall simplifies network security because of its easy configuration.The master branch is based on the net tree and the net-next branch is based against the net-next kernel tree. Spilling means that the variable in the register is moved to the BPF stack.

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