The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) network management model defines five functional areas of network management. This document. This chapter describes important network management features of the WAN and Instead of a general discussion on network management covering a wide. Security Management. Network Management Systems. Architecture of a Network Management System. Simple Network Management Protocol ( SNMP).
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A network management system (NMS) refers to a collection of applications that enable human network manager and the network management system. We present a design of an intelligent network management system (ExNet) that Current network management systems help a network operator to detect and. •Becomes a problem with large and complex networks. •Network Management System: • Remote monitoring and control of the network. •Complex Network.
This analysis provides network managers with proactive problem detection, efficient troubleshooting, and rapid problem resolution.
Application monitoring and profiling: NetFlow data enables network managers to gain a detailed, time-based view of application usage over the network. Content and service providers can use this information to plan and allocate network and application resources such as web server sizing and location to meet customer demands.
User monitoring and profiling: NetFlow data enables network managers to understand customer and user network utilization and resource application. This information can be used to plan efficiently; allocate access, backbone, and application resources; and detect and resolve potential security and policy violations.
NetFlow data warehousing and data mining: In support of proactive marketing and customer service programs, NetFlow data or the information derived from it can be warehoused for later retrieval and analysis.
For example, you can determine which applications and services are being used by internal and external users and target them for improved service. This is especially useful for service providers, because NetFlow data enables them to create a wider range of offered services. For example, a service provider can easily determine the traffic characteristics of various services and, based on this data, provide new services to the users. An example of such a service is VoIP, which requires QoS adjustment; the service provider might charge users for this service.
CDP enables systems that support different network layer protocols to communicate and enables other Cisco devices on the network to be discovered. CDP provides a summary of directly connected switches, routers, and other Cisco devices. CDP is a media- and protocol-independent protocol that is enabled by default on each supported interface of Cisco devices such as routers, access servers, and switches.
The physical media must support Subnetwork Access Protocol encapsulation. Figure illustrates the relationship between CDP and other protocols.
Local Interface: The local on this device interface connected to the discovered neighbor. Holdtime: The remaining amount of time in seconds that the local device holds the CDP advertisement from a sending device before discarding it.
Platform: The device's product type. Port Identifier ID : The port interface number on the discovered neighbor on which the advertisement is sent. This is the interface on the neighbor device to which the local device is connected.
Address List: All network layer protocol addresses configured on the interface or, in the case of protocols configured globally, on the device. In this figure, the person connected to Switch A can see the router and the two switches directly attached to Switch A; other devices are not visible via CDP. CDP is a hello-based protocol, and all Cisco devices that run CDP periodically advertise their attributes to their neighbors using a multicast address. These frames advertise a time-to-live value the holdtime, in seconds that indicates how long the information must be retained before it can be discarded.
CDP frames are sent with a time-to-live value that is nonzero after an interface is enabled. A time-to-live value of 0 is sent immediately before an interface is shut down, allowing other devices to quickly discover lost neighbors. If any information changes from the last received frame, the new information is cached and the previous information is discarded, even if its time-to-live value has not yet expired.
CDP is on by default and operates on any operational interface. However, CDP can be disabled on an interface or globally on a device. Consequently, some caveats are indicated: Do not run CDP on links that you do not want discovered, such as Internet connections. Do not run CDP on links that do not go to Cisco devices. For security reasons, block SNMP access to CDP data or any other data from outside your network and from subnets other than the management station subnet.
Syslog Accounting A system message and error reporting service is an essential component of any operating system. The syslog system message service provides a means for the system and its running processes to report system state information to a network manager. Cisco devices produce syslog messages as a result of network events. Every syslog message contains a time stamp if enabled , severity level, and facility. Example shows samples of syslog messages produced by the Cisco IOS software.
The most common messages are those that a device produces upon exiting configuration mode, and the link up and down messages. ACL logging can be useful to detect packets that are denied access based on the security policy that is set by an ACL.
Example The time stamp shows the date and time of the message or event if the service timestamps log [datetime log] global configuration command is configured. Syslog facilities are service identifiers used to identify and categorize system state data for error and event message reporting.
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Status: mandatory. This value is allocated within the SMI enterprises subtree 1. For example, if vendor "Flintstones, Inc. The Interfaces Group Implementation of the Interfaces group is mandatory for all systems.
The number of entries is given by the value of ifNumber. Access: read-write. Its value ranges between 1 and the value of ifNumber. The value for each interface must remain constant at least from one re- initialization of the entity's network management system to the next re-initialization. This string should include the name of the manufacturer, the product name and the version of the hardware interface.
The string is intended for presentation to a human; it must not contain anything but printable ASCII characters.
For interfaces which do not vary in bandwidth or for those where no accurate estimation can be made, this object should contain the nominal bandwidth. For interfaces which do not have such an address e. The testing 3 state indicates that no operational packets can be passed. If the current state was entered prior to the last re-initialization of the local network management subsystem, then this object contains a zero value.
One possible reason for discarding such a packet could be to free up buffer space. The Address Translation group contains one table which is the union across all interfaces of the translation tables for converting a NetworkAddress e.
For lack of a better term, this document refers to such a subnetwork-specific address as a "physical" address. Examples of such translation tables are: for broadcast media where ARP is in use, the translation table is equivalent to the ARP cache; or, on an X.
Some interfaces do not use translation tables for determining address equivalences e. The interface identified by a particular value of this index is the same interface as identified by the same value of ifIndex.
IP gateways forward datagrams; Hosts do not except those Source-Routed via the host. This count includes invalid addresses e. For entities which are not IP Gateways and therefore do not forward datagrams, this counter includes datagrams discarded because the destination address was not a local address.
In entities which do not act as IP Gateways, this counter will include only those packets which were Source-Routed via this entity, and the Source-Route option processing was successful. Note that this counter does not include any datagrams discarded while awaiting re-assembly.
Note that this counter does not include any datagrams counted in ipForwDatagrams. Note that this counter would include datagrams counted in ipForwDatagrams if any such packets met this discretionary discard criterion. Note that this counter includes any packets counted in ipForwDatagrams which meet this "no-route" criterion. Note that this is not necessarily a count of discarded IP fragments since some algorithms notably RFC 's can lose track of the number of fragments by combining them as they are received.
The value of the mask is an IP address with all the network bits set to 1 and all the hosts bits set to 0. For example, when the Internet standard all-ones broadcast address is used, the value will be 1.
Note that the action to be taken in response to a request to read a non-existent entry, is specific to the network management protocol being used. An entry with a value of 0. Multiple such default routes can appear in the table, but access to such multiple entries is dependent on the table-access mechanisms defined by the network management protocol in use.
The semantics of this metric are determined by the routing-protocol specified in the route's ipRouteProto value. If this metric is not used, its value should be set to The semantics of this metric are determined by the routing- protocol specified in the route's ipRouteProto value.
Inclusion of values for gateway routing protocols is not intended to imply that hosts should support those protocols. Note that no semantics of "too old" can be implied except through knowledge of the routing protocol by which the route was learned. Note that this counter includes all those counted by icmpInErrors. Note that this counter includes all those counted by icmpOutErrors.
This value should not include errors discovered outside the ICMP layer such as the inability of IP to route the resultant datagram.
SNMP - Choose RTUs And Managers - Learn The Protocol
In some implementations there may be no types of error which contribute to this counter's value. Note that instances of object types that represent information about a particular TCP connection are transient; they persist only as long as the connection in question.
More refined semantics for objects of this type depend upon the algorithm used to determine the retransmission timeout. In entities where the maximum number of connections is dynamic, this object should contain the value "-1".
This count includes segments received on currently established connections.An entry with a value of 0. This value should not include errors discovered outside the ICMP layer such as the inability of IP to route the resultant datagram. Network planning and analysis: NetFlow data provides key information for sophisticated network architecture tools to optimize both strategic planning such as whom to peer with, backbone upgrade planning, and routing policy planning and tactical network engineering decisions such as adding resources to routers or upgrading link capacity.
An object of this type is transient, in that it ceases to exist when or soon after the connection makes the transition to the CLOSED state. Moreover, the platform provides an actual complete video streaming application including the implementation of the server side and client side probes for QoE measurements which have functionalities to store the quality measurements into the cloud database accessible to the SDN controller application.
Events: Controls the generation and notification of events from this device. The system also displays the real-time network topology along with the highlighted intents on an interactive web application that can be used for network diagnostics. For entities which are not IP Gateways and therefore do not forward datagrams, this counter includes datagrams discarded because the destination address was not a local address. The goal of this journal is to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to focus on advanced networking concepts and establishing new collaborations in these areas.